Literature also explores the efficacy of CPT for victims of assault. For patients experiencing acute stress disorder following an assault, CPT has been associated with a greater proportion of participants not meeting criteria for PTSD, treatment gains maintained at 6-month follow-up, and a reduction in depressive symptoms.22 Similar improvements and improvements in general mental health, social functioning, and quality of life and health perceptions have also been found in victims of interpersonal violence.9 Changes specific to psychosocial functioning in these individuals have been suggested to occur as a function of improvements in emotional numbing and hyperarousal symptoms targeted by CPT.30
More specifically for victims of sexual assault, CPT has further been associated with improvements in anxiety, guilt and dissociation25 as well as reductions in cognitive distortions (iverson) and improvements on depression measures.26 It has been suggested that many of the improvements associated with CPT in sexual assault victims are maintained. 28,26 Similar outcomes and maintenance have also been observed in victims of childhood sexual abuse.3 Some studies suggest that the greatest improvements and overall outcomes from CPT were seen in those who had higher levels of depression and guilt at the beginning of treatment, and in younger women.29
Cognitive Processing Therapy is already considered a first-line treatment for PTSD. Not only has it been found to be effective for victims of military-related trauma, but it has also demonstrated efficacy for victims of sexual assault and interpersonal violence as it targets similar mechanisms in the recovery process in each of these groups. CPT may be effective on its own or in combination with other treatment plans and it may be that different strategies are beneficial for different individuals and different types of trauma.
1. Ahrens, J., & Rexford, L. (2002). Cognitive Processing Therapy for incarcerated adolescents with PTSD. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 6(1), 201-216.
2. Alvarez, Jennifer, McLean, Caitlin, Harris, Alex H. S., Rosen, Craig S., Ruzek, Josef I., & Kimerling, Rachel. (2011). The Comparative Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male Veterans Treated in a VHA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Residential Rehabilitation Program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(5), 590-599.
3. Chard, K., & La Greca, Annette M. (2005). An Evaluation of Cognitive Processing Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 965-971.
4. Dickstein, B., Walter, K., Schumm, J., & Chard, K. (2013). Comparing Response to Cognitive Processing Therapy in Military Veterans With Subthreshold and Threshold Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(6), 703-709.
5. N. Inès Dossa, & Marie Hatem. (2012). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Other PTSD Psychotherapies as Treatment for Women Victims of War-Related Violence: A Systematic Review. The Scientific World Journal, 2012, The Scientific World Journal, 01 January 2012, Vol.2012.
6. Farmer, Mitchell, Parker-Guilbert, & Galovski. (2017). Fidelity to the Cognitive Processing Therapy protocol: Evaluation of critical elements. Behavior Therapy, 48(2), 195-206.
7. Forbes, Lloyd, Nixon, Elliott, Varker, Perry, . . . Creamer. (2012). A multisite randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive processing therapy for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(3), 442-452.
8. Gallagher, M., & Resick, W. (2012). Mechanisms of change in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Preliminary evidence for the differential effects of hopelessness and habituation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(6), 750-755.
9. Galovski, Tara E., Blain, Leah M., Mott, Juliette M., Elwood, Lisa, & Houle, Timothy. (2012). Manualized Therapy for PTSD: Flexing the Structure of Cognitive Processing Therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(6), 968-981.
10. Galovski, T., Harik, J., Blain, L., Elwood, L., Gloth, C., Fletcher, T., . . . Davila, Joanne. (2016). Augmenting Cognitive Processing Therapy to improve sleep impairment in PTSD: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(2), 167-177.
11. Gutner, Casement, Stavitsky Gilbert, & Resick. (2013). Change in sleep symptoms across Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure: A longitudinal perspective. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(12), 817-822.
12. Haller, M., Norman, S., Cummins, K., Trim, R., Xu, X., Cui, R., . . . Tate, S. (2016). Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 62, 38.
13. Holliday, Holder, & Surís. (2018). Reductions in self-blame cognitions predict PTSD improvements with cognitive processing therapy for military sexual trauma-related PTSD. Psychiatry Research, 263, 181-184.
14. Holliday, R., Williams, R., Bird, J., Mullen, K., Surís, A., Deleon, Patrick H., . . . Sbrocco, Tracy. (2015). The Role of Cognitive Processing Therapy in Improving Psychosocial Functioning, Health, and Quality of Life in Veterans With Military Sexual Trauma-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Services, 12(4), 428-434.
15. Iverson, K., King, M., Cunningham, K., & Resick, P. (2015). Rape survivors’ trauma-related beliefs before and after Cognitive processing therapy: Associations with PTSD and depression symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 66, 49.
16. Lamp, K., Avallone, K., Maieritsch, K., Buchholz, K., & Rauch, S. (2018). Individual and Group Cognitive Processing Therapy: Effectiveness Across Two Veterans Affairs Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment Clinics. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2018.
17. Larsen, Wiltsey Stirman, Smith, & Resick. (2016). Symptom exacerbations in trauma-focused treatments: Associations with treatment outcome and non-completion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 68-77.
18. Lenz, Stephen, Bruijn, Brian, Serman, Nina S., & Bailey, Laura. (2014). Effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for treating posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 36(4), 360-376.
19. Lloyd, Nixon, Varker, Elliott, Perry, Bryant, . . . Forbes. (2014). Comorbidity in the prediction of Cognitive Processing Therapy treatment outcomes for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(2), 237-240.
20. Mullen, Holliday, Morris, Raja, & Surís. (2014). Cognitive processing therapy for male veterans with military sexual trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28(8), 761-764.
21. Nishith, Nixon, & Resick. (2005). Resolution of trauma-related guilt following treatment of PTSD in female rape victims: A result of cognitive processing therapy targeting comorbid depression? Journal of Affective Disorders, 86(2), 259-265.
22. Nixon, R. (2012). Cognitive Processing Therapy Versus Supportive Counseling for Acute Stress Disorder Following Assault: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 825-836.
23. Price, J., MacDonald, H., Adair, K., Koerner, N., & Monson, C. (2016). Changing beliefs about trauma: A qualitative study of Cognitive Processing Therapy. 44(2), 156-167.
24. Ragsdale, K., & Voss Horrell, S. (2016). Effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy for U.S. Veterans With a History of Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29(5), 474-477.
25. Regehr, C., Alaggia, R., Dennis, J., Pitts, A., & Saini, M. (2013). Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Sexual Violence and Rape: A Systematic Review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 9(3)
26. Resick, P., Schnicke, M., & Beutler, Larry E. (1992). Cognitive Processing Therapy for Sexual Assault Victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5), 748-756.
27. Resick, P., Suvak, M., Johnides, B., Mitchell, K., & Iverson, K. (2012). The impact of dissociation on PTSD treatment with cognitive processing therapy. Depression and Anxiety, 29(8), 718-30.
28. Resick, Patricia A., Williams, Lauren F., Suvak, Michael K., Monson, Candice M., & Gradus, Jaimie L. (2012). Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Rape Survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(2), 201-210.
29. Rizvi, Vogt, & Resick. (2009). Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(9), 737-743.
30. Shnaider, P., Vorstenbosch, V., Macdonald, A., Wells, S., Monson, C., & Resick, P. (2014). Associations Between Functioning and PTSD Symptom Clusters in a Dismantling Trial of Cognitive Processing Therapy in Female Interpersonal Violence Survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(5), 526-534.
31. Turner, Smith, Jones, & Harrison. (2018). Adapting Cognitive Processing Therapy to treat co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and mild traumatic brain injury: A case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 25(2), 261-274.
32. Surís, A., Link‐Malcolm, J., Chard, K., Ahn, C., & North, C. (2013). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Veterans With PTSD Related to Military Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(1), 28-37.
33. Voelkel, E., Pukay‐Martin, N., Walter, K., & Chard, K. (2015). Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male and Female U.S. Veterans With and Without Military Sexual Trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(3), 174-182.
34. Walter, K., Dickstein, B., Barnes, S., & Chard, K. (2014). Comparing Effectiveness of CPT to CPT‐C Among U.S. Veterans in an Interdisciplinary Residential PTSD/TBI Treatment Program. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(4), 438-445.